An Operating System (OS) is a program or set of programs of a computer system, which manages physical resources (hardware), execution protocols for the rest of the content (software), as well as the user interface.
The operating systems (sometimes called cores or kernels) are executed in a privileged way with respect to the rest of the software, they are the cornerstone of the operation of the equipment, its basic operational protocol that allows the activation of different types of applications by the user.
These systems are found in many of the electronic devices that we use on a daily basis, whether through graphical user interfaces, desktop environments, window managers or command lines, depending on the nature of the device.
Types of Operating Systems:
MS Windows Without doubt the most popular of the OS, although it really is a set of distributions (an operating environment) built to provide older Operating Systems (such as MS-DOS) with a graphical support interface and a set of tools software. Its first version appeared in 1985 and since then it has not stopped updating itself in more powerful and varied versions, as Microsoft, its mother company, prevails in the market of digital technologies.
GNU / Linux:
GNU / Linux This term refers to the combined use of the free kernel of the Unix family called “Linux”, along with the GNU distribution, also free. The result is one of the main protagonists of the development of free software, whose source code can be used, modified and redistributed freely.
UNIX This portable, multitasking and multi-user operating system was developed early in 1969, and over the years its copyright rights have moved from one company to another. Actually it is a family of similar OS, many of which have made commercial life and others are free format, all from the Linux kernel.
Fedora It is essentially a distribution of Linux for general purposes, which emerged after the discontinuation of Red Hat Linux, with which it is closely linked but which emerged as a community project. It is another essential name when talking about free software and open source, in its three main versions: Workstation, Cloud and Server.
Ubuntu Based on GNU / Linux, this free and open source Operating System takes its name from the South African philosophy focused on man’s loyalty to the rest of the species. In that sense, Ubuntu is oriented towards ease and freedom of use, although Canonical, the British company that owns its rights, subsists on the basis of technical services linked to the program.
MacOS The operating system of the Machintosh, also known as OSX or Mac OS X, whose environment is based on Unix and is developed and sold as part of the Apple brand computers since 2002. Part of this family of software was released by Apple as an open and open source Operating System called Darwin, to which they later added components such as Aqua and Finder, to obtain the interface on which Mac OS X is based, its most recent version.
Another Unix-type Operating System, created in 1992 by Sun Microsystems and used today for SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) and x86 system architectures, frequent on servers and workstations. It is an officially certified version of Unix whose released version is called OpenSolaris.
Open Source Operating System focused on personal aspects of computing and multimedia, inspired by the BeOS (Be Operating System), with which it is compatible. Its great particularity lies in the possibility of generating each user’s own distributions. It is currently under development.
Developed in 1990 by Be Incorporated, it is a PC Operating System aimed at maximizing multimedia performance. It has been said that it was based on Unix, due to the inclusion of the Bash command interface, but it is not like that: BeOs has an original modular micronucleus, highly optimized for handling audio, video and animated graphics. In addition, unlike Unix, it is a single user.
Acronym for MicroSoft Disk Operating System, was one of the most popular Operating Systems for IBM personal computers in the 1980s until the mid-1990s. It operated based on a series of internal and external commands, in a very characteristic monochromatic command line interface.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs:
Plan 9 from Bell Labs Or simply “Plan 9”, it takes its name from the famous science fiction film series B Plan 9 from outer Space by Ed Wood. It was developed to succeed Unix as a distributed Operating System, used in research, and known for representing all of its interfaces as an archiving system.
It is a version of Unix developed by the famous technology company Hewlett Packard since 1983, taking advantage of its notorious stability, flexibility, power and its range of applications, common to most commercial versions of Unix. It is a system that has emphasized security and data protection, perhaps due to its many industrial applications.
Free and open source operating system for desktop computers, is a completely independent project of software companies, which aspires to be a light, simple and fast OS whose applications and features are understandable by less expert users. Without being tied to old technologies, it is compatible with GNU / Linux and is currently under development.
Currently in the project state, the Google Operating System is assumed, based on the web and an open source Linux kernel, initially oriented to mini-laptops with ARM or x86 technology processors. This project was announced in 2009, after the Google Chrome browser and its open source project Chromium OS yielded very positive market results.
Taken its name from the typical Italian sweet, “zabaione”, this Linux distribution is based on Gentoo Linux, an earlier version for more experienced users. Available for various desktop environments, it is open source and free, aiming at a more total management of system resources by the user.
Originally from Argentina, this GNU / Linux distribution uses LiveCD technology, despite its 2 Gigabytes of applications with various packages applied to various areas. It is based on Ubuntu and Debian GNU / Linux, but with a marked local color that begins with its name, which refers to fireflies.
Android Based on the Linux kernel, this OS for mobile devices with a touch screen (Smartphones, Tablets, etc.) was developed by Android Inc. and subsequently purchased by Google. Currently, it is so popular that Android system sales exceed those of IOS (Macintosh) and Windows Phone.
Debian With a Linux kernel and GNU tools, this free OS has been built since 1993 from the collaboration of thousands of users from all over the world, gathered under the banner of the “Debian Project”, away from all types of marketing of software and operate independently.
Canaima GNU / Linux:
Venezuelan version of the GNU / Linux, pursues the use of software for educational and social purposes, free and open source, was presented in 2007 as part of a local educational project.
The closed-source OS installed in the cell phones of the BlackBerry brand, allows multitasking (multitasking) and supports various input methods, for the various telephony models of the company. His strengths are as an agenda and email manager in real time.
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